by Nickolaos D. Skouras, PhD.

Excitability of cells and tissues is a basic function of life. Also known as irritability, it is the ability of cells to respond to stimuli. Excitability is necessary for the functioning of nerves, muscles, and hormones, among other things. The basis for the excitability of cells is their ion distribution, and the distribution of ions and molecules is determined by transport mechanisms associated with their plasma membrane structure. This structure permits and regulates various forms of ionic and molecular transport mechanisms associated with their plasma membrane structure.

There is oscillating current and potential happening across every cell membrane. Every cell process has electron transport. Every cell process has oxidation and reduction, which drive and are driven by volt and amp electropotentials. Each cell system, each organ, each organ system and indeed each organism has capacitance, inductance, suspectance, admittance, and resonant frequencies. The effects of bioelectronics borders on quantum physics making, up until recently, reproducibility a problem for laboratory results; but new developments in subtle energetic medicine have led to new applications of these principles. (Ref. Nelson, 1992)

Recent research by Delguidice, Popp, Kenyon, Wilkerson, White, and many others have found application for these electrical laws in biology. Adey's work on membrane dynamics-and Lawrence's work` on non-linear electrodynamics show interesting examples of Bio-electronics. The oxidation-reduction of biochemistry is caused by electropotential of volts and amperage. The reactions in turn cause more electropotential, which drives more volt and amp change. (Ref. Nelson, 1992)

There are many frequencies involved with a multitude of biological process. Perhaps the lowest frequency is that-of the heartbeat (about 1 Hz). Some cellular processes have been measured in the gigahertz range. Inter medium frequencies are to be found in the mid ranges as well. (Ref. Frohlich) But this short paper is on just the reactivity component of energetic medicine.

Just as there is extensive research in voltammetric analysis of biochemistry, there is also extensive research in voltammetric analysis of biological organisms. This has lead to several major conferences and the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences have devoted several volumes to the study of bio voltammetry.

The major scientific research teams involved reported thousands of articles on successful voltammetric analysis of biological organisms. (Ref. Annals of the New York Academy_ of Sciences) The 1986 volume 473 was dedicated to the Neurochemical Analysis of the Conscious Brain. In this volume studies were discussed that tested several topics relative to our own research.

  1. Surface mount electrodes could be used to measure internal reactive changes of volts and amps.
  2. Volt changes relate more to catecholamines,
  3. Amp changes relate more to brain hormones (such as serotonin, dopamine, enkephalins, Gaba, and hypothalamic neuropeptides)
  4. Rapid changes in biochemistry cause changes in conscious states and can be measured_ with external volt and amperage detectors. (Ref. Annals vol. 473)

Since changes in volts and amps are reflective of capacitance and inductance, we can see the logic of our bioelectroreactivity model. Our clinical tests have also revealed factors of reaction time, reaction duration, reaction intensity and other dynamics. (Ref. Nelson et al, Summary of Reactivity)

Research into skin resistance has consistently been extremely disappointing however. Research into skin resistance as a measure of reactivity has consistently shown little effect. The reasons for the popularity of this medium in the "alternative" medical arena seem to be its self-fulfilling capacity. (Ref. Nelson on Facilitated Diagnostics) But now let us return to our analysis of real bioelectro reactivity.

As we allow ourselves to develop new sensitivities, we begin to see the whole world quite differently. We begin to pay more attention to aspects of experience that might have seemed peripheral before. We find ourselves using new language to communicate our new experiences. Terms like "bad vibes" or "the energy there was great" are becoming household phrases. We start noticing and giving more credence to experiences like meeting someone and instantly liking or disliking him without knowing anything about him. We like his "vibes". We can tell when someone is staring at us, and we look up to see who it is. We may have a feeling that something is going to happen, and then it does. We begin to listen to our intuition. We "know" things, but we don't always know how we know. We sense that a friend is feeling a certain way, or needs something, and when we reach out to fulfill that need, we find we are right. Sometimes during an argument with someone we may feel as if something is being pulled out of our Solar Plexus, or we may feel "stabbed". We may feel as if we have been punched in the stomach. Or it may feel like someone is pouring thick, gooey molasses on us. On the other hand, we sometimes feel surrounded by love, caressed by it, bathed in a sea of sweetness, blessings and light. All these experiences have a reality in the energy fields. Our old world of solid concrete objects is surrounded by and permeated with a fluid world of radiating energy, constantly moving, constantly changing like the sea.

In my observations throughout the years, I have seen the counterparts of these experiences as forms within the human aura, which consists of the observable and measurable components of the energy field that surrounds and interpenetrates the body. When someone has been "shafted" by a lover, the shaft is literally visible to the clairvoyant. When you feel as if something is being pulled out of your Solar Plexus, it usually is. It can be seen by the clairvoyant. I can see it. So can you, eventually, if you follow your intuition and develop your senses.

It helps in the development of this Higher Sense Perception to consider what modern scientists have already learned about the world of dynamic energy fields. It helps us remove the blocks from our brains that keep us from seeing that we, too, are subject to all the universal laws. Modern science tells us that the human organism is not just a physical structure made of molecules, but that, like everything else, we are also composed of energy fields. We are moving out of the world of static solid form into a world of dynamic energy fields. We, too, ebb and flow like the sea. We, too, are constantly changing. How do we, as human beings, deal with such information? We adapt to it. If such reality exists, we want to experience it. And scientists are learning to measure these subtle changes. They are developing instruments to detect these energy fields related to our bodies and to measure their frequencies. They measure electrical currents from the heart with the electrocardiogram (ECG). They measure electrical currents from the brain with the electro- encephalogram (EEG). The lie detector measures the electropotential of the skin. They can now even measure electromagnetic fields around the body with a sensitive device called the SQUID (the superconducting quantum interference device). This device does not even touch the body when measuring the magnetic fields around it. Dr. Samuel Williamson of New York University states that the SQUID offers more information about the state of brain functioning than a normal EEG.

As medicine relies more and more upon these sophisticated instruments that measure impulses from the body, health and disease, even life itself, are slowly being redefined in terms- of energy impulses and patterns. As early as 1939,Drs. H. Burr and F. Northrop at Yale University found that by measuring the energy field of a plant seed (which they termed the L, or Life-field), they could tell how healthy the plant grown from that seed would be. They found that by measuring the field of a frog's eggs, they could discern the future location of the frog's nervous system. Another such measurement pinpointed the time of ovulation in women, suggesting a new birth control method.

In 1959, Dr. Leonard Ravitz at William and Mary University showed that the Human Energy Field fluctuates with a person's mental and psychological stability. He suggested that there is a field associated with the thought processes. He suggested that variation of this thought field caused psychosomatic symptoms.

In 1979, another scientist, Dr. Robert Becker of Upstate Medical School, Syracuse, New York, mapped a complex electrical field on the body which is shaped like the body and the central nervous system. He named this field the Direct Current Control System and found that it changes shape and strength with physiological and psychological changes. He also found particles moving through this field that are the size of electrons.

Dr. Victor Inyushin at Kazakh University in Russia has done extensive research with the Human Energy Field since the 1950s. Using the results of these experiments, he suggests the existence of a "bioplasmic" energy field composed of ions, free protons and free. electrons. Since this is a state distinct from the four known states of matter-solids, liquids, gases and plasma - Inyushin suggests that the bioplasmic energy field is a fifth state' of matter. His observations showed the bioplasmic particles are constantly renewed by chemical processes in the cells and are in constant motion. There appears to be a balance of positive and negative particles within the bioplasma that is relatively stable. If there is a severe shift in this balance, the health of the organism is affected. In spite of the normal stability of the bioplasma, Inyushin has found that a significant amount of this energy is radiated into space. Clouds of bioplasmic particles, which have broken away from the organism, can be measured moving through the air.

Thus, we have been plunged into a world of life energy fields, thought fields and bioplasmic forms moving about and streaming off the body. We have become vibrating, radiating bioplasma itself! But if wee look into the literature, this is not new. People have known about the phenomenon since the dawning of time. It is just that in our time the phenomenon is being rediscovered. It was either unknown or rejected by the western general public for a time, during which scientists concentrated on our knowledge of the physical world. As this knowledge has developed and Newtonian physics given way to relativity, electromagnetic and particle theories, we are more and more able to see the connections between scientific objective descriptions of our world and the world of subjective human experience.

Properties of biophotons and their theoretical implications.

International Institute of Biophysics, Ehem.Raketenstation, Kapellener Strasse o.N., D-41472 Neuss, Germany. a0221@rrz.uni_koeln.de

The word "biophotons" is used to denote a permanent spontaneous photon emission from all living systems. It displays a few up to some hundred photons/(s x cm2) within the spectral range from at least 260 to 800 nm. It is closely linked to delayed luminescence (DL) of biological tissues which describes the long term and ultra weak reemission of photons after exposure to light illumination. During relaxation DL turns continuously into the steady state biophoton emission, where both, DL and biophoton emission exhibit mode coupling over the entire spectrum and a Poissonian photo count distribution. DL is representing excited states of the biophoton field. The physical properties indicate that biophotons originate from fully coherent and sometimes even squeezed states. The physical analysis provides thermodynamic and quantum optical interpretation, in order to understand the biological impacts of biophotons. Biological phenomena like intracellular and intercellular communication, cell growth and differentiation, interactions among biological systems (like "Gestaltbildung" or swarming), and microbial infections can be understood in terms of biophotons. "Biophotonics", the corresponding field of applications, provide a new powerful tool for assessing the quality of food (like freshness and shelf life), microbial infections, environmental influences and for substantiating medical diagnosis and therapy.
PMID: 15244259 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Biophotons from stressed and dying organisms: toxicological aspects.

Department of Radio and Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, PL-60-965 Poznan, Piotrowo 3 str., Poland. slawinsk@sol.put.poznan.pl

Cells and organisms exposed to detrimental and toxic substances show different responses in photon emission dependent on amount, kind and exposure time of toxin as well as on the organism investigated. Radical reaction-generating substances and dehydrating, lipid dissolving and protein denaturating toxins which do not induce direct chemiluminescence resulting from reactive oxygen species were applied. Lethal doses of toxins and stress factors such as osmotics and temperature evoke increase in the intensity of photon emission resulting from a rapid and irreversible perturbation of homeostasis. Bacterial and fungal toxins that elicit hypersensitive death of plant cells or defense response correlated with photon emission are also briefly discussed. Collective molecular interactions contribute to the photon-generating degradative processes in stressed and dying organisms. The measurements of biophoton signals and analysis of their parameters are used to elucidate the possible mechanisms of the toxin-organism interaction and the resistance of organisms. Toxicological perspectives of the use of these sensitive and rapid measurements as a part of direct toxicity assessment are discussed.
PMID: 15244270 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Quantum coherence of biophotons and living systems.

Bajpai RP

Institute of Self Organising Systems and Biophysics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, India. rpbajpai@nehu.ac.in

Coherence is a property of the description of the system in the classical framework in which the subunits of a system act in a cooperative manner. Coherence becomes classical if the agent causing cooperation is discernible otherwise it is quantum coherence. Both stimulated and spontaneous biophoton signals show properties that can be attributed to the cooperative actions of many photon-emitting units. But the agents responsible for the cooperative actions of units have not been discovered so far. The stimulated signal decays with non-exponential character. It is system and situation specific and sensitive to many physiological and environmental factors. Its measurable holistic parameters are strength, shape, relative strengths of spectral components, and excitation curve. The spontaneous signal is non-decaying with the probabilities of detecting various number of photons to be neither normal nor Poisson. The detected probabilities in a signal of Parmelia tinctorum match with probabilities expected in a squeezed state of photons. It is speculated that an in vivo nucleic acid molecule is an assembly of intermittent quantum patches that emit biophoton in quantum transitions. The distributions of quantum patches and their lifetimes determine the holistic features of biophoton signals, so that the coherence of biophotons is merely a manifestation of the coherence of living systems.
PMID: 15244274 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

An introduction to human biophoton emission.

Utrecht University, The Netherlands. roeland_van_wijk@meluna.nl

BACKGROUND: Biophoton emission is the spontaneous emission of ultraweak light emanating from all living systems, including man. The emission is linked to the endogenous production of excited states within the living system. The detection and characterisation of human biophoton emission has led to suggestions that it has potential future applications in medicine. OBJECTIVES: An overview is presented of studies on ultraweak photon emission (UPE, biophotons) from the human whole body. METHODS: Electronic searches of Medline, PsychLit, PubMed and references lists of relevant review articles and books were used to establish the literature database. Articles were then analysed for their main experimental setup and results. RESULTS: The, mostly, single case studies have resulted in a collection of observations. The collection presents information on the following fields of research: (1) influence of biological rhythms, age, and gender on emission, (2) the intensity of emission and its left-right symmetry in health and disease, (3) emission from the perspective of Traditional Chinese and Korean Medicine, (4) emission in different consciousness studies, (5) procedures for analysis of the photon signal from hands, (6) detection of peroxidative processes in the skin. Of each article the main findings are presented in a qualitative manner, quantitative data are presented where useful, and the technological or methodological limitations are discussed. CONCLUSION: Photon emission recording techniques have reached a stage that allows resolution of the signal in time and space. The published material is presented and includes aspects like spatial resolution of intensity, its relation to health and disease, the aspect of colour, and methods for analysis of the photon signal. The limited number of studies only allows first conclusions about the implications and significance of biophotons in relation to health and disease, or to mental states, or acupuncture. However, with the present data we consider that further research in the field is justified.
PMID: 15947465 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Biophoton research in blood reveals its holistic properties.

nternational Institute of Biophysics, Neuss, FRG. vvl@soil.msu.ru

Monitoring of spontaneous and luminophore amplified photon emission (PE) from non-diluted human blood under resting conditions and artificially induced immune reaction revealed that blood is a continuous source of biophotons indicating that it persists in electronically excited state. This state is pumped through generation of electron excitation produced in reactive oxygen species (ROS) reactions. Excited state of blood and of neutrophil suspensions (primary sources of ROS in blood) is an oscillatory one suggesting of interaction between individual sources of electron excitation. Excited state of blood is extremely sensitive to the tiniest fluctuations of external photonic fields but resistant to temperature variations as reflected in hysteresis of PE in response to temperature variations. These data suggest that blood is a highly cooperative non-equilibrium and non-linear system, whose components unceasingly interact in time and space. At least in part this property is provided by the ability of blood to store energy of electron excitation that is produced in course of its own normal metabolism. From a practical point of view analysis of these qualities of blood may be a basement of new approach to diagnostic procedures.
PMID: 15244269 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]