Coenzyme-ATM and Stress

by Nickolaos D. Skouras, PhD.

According to an American Psychological Association's (APA) recent study a total of 43% of adults in the U.S. suffer adverse health effects from stress. The National Institute of Mental Health reports that Anxiety disorders affect approx. forty million American adults age 18 years or older. That clearly translates to 18% of the population at a given year. Stress is a psychological response to an external happening, whereas anxiety is a state of mind that is real or imagined and manifests itself in physical symptoms like rapid heart rate and sweaty palms, sleeping disorders and eventually depression.

Nickolaos D. Skouras, Ph.D. explains that both stress and anxiety can cause a cascade of biological reactions that occur in the brain. It is an over stimulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary- Adrenal axis, which over time can damage the immune system and cause a host of health issues. Current studies also show that the metabolic enzyme (Coenzyme-A) plays a major role in the body's ability to cope with stress, anxiety, and depression and further strengthen the immune system. During the process of combating stress and anxiety, the human body secretes hormones as a means to adapt to the ever increasing daily stress levels. These hormones are derivatives of cholesterol and an increased demand for the synthesis of them by the human body will prioritize and draw on the remaining available Coenzyme-A pool, thus rendering a state of deficiency.

Whether you’re a businessman dealing with on the job issues, a stay at home mom coping with the daily chores of raising kids or a student preparing for an exam, we’ve all experienced the effects of stress.

Like anything, stress isn’t bad for you in moderation. Unfortunately prolonged or intense stress causes physiological reactions such as depression, anxiety, lack of energy and fatigue which throw the body out of balance. Stress weakens the immune system and increases susceptibility to infectious disease.

COENZYME-A TECHNOLOGIES INC. introduces a series of proprietary products that not only address nutritional deficiencies that result from the stress of modern day living but also chemical imbalances within the body, and the effects of aging.

The IMAGETM products are the first and only products to provide people with a balanced combination of active nutritional components that can be used by the body to support its manufacture and utilization of coenzyme-A. In addition, each product also contains its own set of specific substances that support coenzyme-A’s correction or alleviation of particular problems associated with certain nutritional deficiencies such as acne, cholesterol, the effect of aging, weight gain, and joint problems.


As we all know, the human body is composed of trillions of cells. Each of these cells is made of various chemical molecules that perform certain vital biochemical functions. These functions only occur in the presence of enzymes. An enzyme is a protein substance which supports digestion or metabolism. Although enzymes are usually not destroyed during such chemical reactions, they pass out of the body and should be replenished on a daily basis. Similar to Coenzyme Q-10, which has become an increasingly popular dietary supplement as more people realize that it is a naturally occurring vitamin essential for good health, Coenzyme-A is even more essential, yet had not been isolated in pure form, until now.

There are digestive and metabolic enzymes. The metabolic enzymes facilitate the chemical reactions that carry out the processes of metabolism. Typically, metabolic enzymes are composed of two components: (1) an "apoenzyme" and (2) a "coenzyme" that initiates such specific chemical reaction. The body’s primary sources of energy are produced at the cellular level by these metabolic processes.

Coenzyme-A is indispensable for energy production during the TCA and glycolitic cycle which are responsible for the production of about 95% of the energy the body requires to sustain life. Coenzyme-A is crucial in the proper functioning of parts of the brain affecting primitive emotions, responsiveness to outside stimuli, memory, learning and long-term planning. It regulates sodium, potassium and water balance in the body. It plays an important role in the body’s reaction to stress and is essential in supporting the development and operation of the sex organs essential to human existence.

Another crucial function of coenzyme-A is it initiates the fatty acid metabolism that breaks down fatty acids in the body to avoid high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, and the high lipid levels that are characteristic of patients with cardiovascular or diabetic disorders. Also, coenzyme-A supports critical functions of the immune system and facilitates the repair of RNA, DNA and physical injury. It also facilitates the manufacture of connective tissue and the formation and repair of cartilage.

Coenzyme-A is manufactured in the cells of the liver and other body organs from components transported by the blood. The highest concentrations of coenzyme-A are found in the liver, heart, kidneys, brain, adrenal glands, and skeletal muscles. However, literally every organ of the body has coenzyme-A in its tissues because every part of the body has a use for it.

Coenzyme-A is manufactured in the cells of the body from three components: adenosine triphosphate (ATP), cysteine, and pantothenic acid (vitamin B-5). The body can manufacture both ATP and cysteine by synthesis; however, pantothenic acid is an essential vitamin that the body does not produce.


Everyone knows that human life depends upon the availability of oxygen; few people know that coenzyme-A is just as important!

Studies have shown that clinically induced deficiencies of coenzyme-A cause symptoms such as depression, anxiety, loss of appetite, impaired sense of balance, easy irritability, fatigue, frequent respiratory infection, cardiac instability, and abnormal need for sleep. Neurological disorders including, numbness, muscle weakness, cramps, abdominal pain and paresthesia (abnormal sensations such as itching and prickling, tingling extremities, and "burning feet" syndrome). Biochemical changes included increased insulin sensitivity, lowered blood cholesterol, and decreased serum potassium.

Deficiency in coenzyme-A also adversely impacts the immune system. Damage to DNA and deterioration of the immune system are both recognized as major causes of aging or premature death. The diseases of age that usually cause disability or death such as arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, adult on-set diabetes, cancer, arteriosclerosis, etc. are usually prevented or alleviated by a well-functioning immune system and healthy DNA. As noted above, coenzyme-A supports critical functions of the immune system and facilitates the repair of RNA and DNA.

The body has the capacity to manufacture certain nutrients, but not essential vitamins such as pantothenic acid (B-5). However, in addition to taking essential vitamins as a supplement, it is also advantageous to take certain nutrients as dietary supplements. Otherwise, the body must expend raw materials and scarce resources such as enzymes and coenzymes to manufacture the necessary nutrients. Further, as the body ages, its ability to efficiently manufacture and utilize the quantity of nutrients required to maintain good health progressively decreases. Aside from defective genes, or bacterial and viral diseases, the inability of the body to slow or partially reverse the deadly processes of aging can stem from nutritional deficiencies. Unfortunately, it is sometimes difficult to detect a dietary deficiency; however, the effect of most dietary deficiencies is cumulative and the effect of some may be irreversible (and perhaps fatal).

Why risk a dietary deficiency of coenzyme-A that could affect the quality or duration of life? Try Coenzyme A "The Master Coenzyme" or an IMAGETM product offered by COENZYME A TECHNOLOGIES INC. and see the difference for yourself.

IMAGETM is everything...inside and out!